my short stories

Jumat, 14 Agustus 2009



Learning and teaching a foreign language needs a lot of patience, energy, time, creativity and competence. The success of the teaching and learning of foreign language skills including English is determined by a number of factors both linguistic and non linguistic such as the students, the teacher, the methods, material and media or aids used.

English teaching media are very important to help students acquire new concepts of, the skills and language competences. They are many kinds of media which can be used by the teachers in the teaching learning process, but the teacher should be selective when choosing. This paper discusses about Kinds of Instructional Media For Teaching English. This case followed their picture, definition and how to use in English teaching.


A chart is a combination of pictorial, graphic, numerical or vertical material which presents a clear visual summary.

Edgar Dale defines charts as, “a visual symbol summarizing or comparing or contrasting or performing other helpful services in explaining subject-matter”. The main function of the chart is always to show relationships such as comparisons, relative amounts, developments, processes, classification and organization.

Uses of charts:

1. Motivates the students

2. Shows continuity in the process

3. Shows relationships by means of facts, figures and statistics

4. Presents matter symbolically

5. Presents abstract ideas in visual form

6. Summarizes information

7. Shows the development of structures

8. Creates problems and stimulates thinking

9. Encourages utilization of other media of communication

Posters (2)

S.L.Ahulwalia’s view: “A poster is a pictorial device designed to attract attention and

communicate a story, a fact, an idea, or an image rapidly and clearly.”

Good’s Dictionary of Education: A poster is a “placard, usually pictorial or decorative,

utilizing an emotional appeal to convey a message aimed at reinforcing an attitude or urging a course of action”.

The poster can be defined as a graphic representation of some strong emotional appeal that is carried through a combination of graphic aids like pictures, cartoons lettering and other visual arts on a placard. It aims for conveying the specific message, teaching a particular thing, giving a general idea etc. Posters exert a great influence on the observer.

How to use posters

Posters are very useful in students’ project work. Divide the class into groups and each group can decide what message their post is going to have. The completed posters, together with the students’ other project work, such as reports and maps, can then be displayed around the school.

Flashcard (3)

Flashcards are small cards with a picture or symbol on them used both in teaching and

in development work. In the classroom, flashcards are commonly used to teach reading.

A picture, for example, of an elephant may be drawn or stuck on a card and the word

‘elephant’ written underneath it or on a different card. The students are encouraged to

associate the pictures and the words through various ‘look and say’ activities and games,

for example, Kim’s game, Pairs, and so on.

In teaching and development work, flashcards may have pictures symbols drawn or

painted on them. They are particularly useful for stimulating discussion in small groups, as well as for sharing information and reminding people of a recommended process with

posters, research the local situation and pre-test them.

How to use flashcards

To use flashcards in a classroom situation, such as learning to read show the picture and the word together. Ask students to look at the picture and say the word. Then they look at the word and say it again. After presenting a number of words with pictures that the students already know, ask for volunteers to come out and match pictures and words.

When the students have learnt to read the words, you can divide them into teams and play reading games using the flashcards.

Graphs (4)

Graph is defined as a visual representation of numerical data. Graph is fundamentally a tool for expressing number relationships, which is much easier to visualize than can be done if the statement were made only in words and figures. It offers a judicious technique for analyzing, comparing and prophesying of facts which are vital to an intelligent study of a problem.

Uses of Graphs

1. Awareness: The teacher should be well aware of the method of drawing of graph in a

neat and accurate manner.

2. Neatness: The graph should be neat, clean and artistic. It should be of good quality.

3. Accuracy: The scales and the measurement of the graph should be accurate and

intelligible to the students.

4. Drawing and paper: The graph should be properly drawn. The graph paper should be

good. The pencil that is used should also be good.

5. Hints: The hints should be properly explained. The marks on the graph should be such

that the students may know them by themselves.

6. Blackboard: The teacher may draw a graph on the black board.

Map (5)

A map is a flat drawing or representation of an area, such as a village, which shows the location of natural and man-made features and resources. A map is drawn or made to be smaller than real life, and is not always to scale.

In development work, a village or community map made by learners or participants in a project can serve a number of purposes. Communities can think about what resources they lack and plan the most suitable place to build new resources, such as a well or a school. Mapping can help outsiders to become more familiar with an area and with the people who live there. The process of making a map can encourage cooperation

between people, by jointly assessing their situation and needs. By using and valuing their own knowledge and perceptions, people may feel encouraged to take action to solve their problems. Maps drawn by different groups of people in a community, for example by groups of young and old people, or by people of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, will reflect differences in their perceptions, priorities and needs. This may have important consequences for the success of a project. If one group includes features that another group excludes, this may reveal inequalities in access to and ownership of

resources such as firewood, water, land or institutions, such as schools and shops.

Maps made by students or communities may take several days or weeks to build up, as they gain confidence through the process. Leave any map with the group you have made it with. If you want to keep a copy, make your own or take photographs.

Making a map in a classroom can help to teach students about the concept of maps and how to interpret them. It can help the student to reflect on their own surroundings. For example, they might make a map of the health and safety hazards in the school compound, village or town, showing features such as busy roads, blind corners, unprotected water sources, rubbish tips and stagnant ponds where mosquitoes breed. This might be part of a project to protect the environment or to campaign for road safety measures.

Slides (6)

Among the various types of materials available still projection, slides and film strips are the foremost visual aids. They are of great value in teaching. Slide Projector or Diascope

popularly known as Magic Lantern, is an optical aid to the process of teaching. It is used for projecting pictures from a transparent slide on a wall or screen. As it is used to project

slides, i.e., why it is called a slide projector. It helps in showing the magnified image of the slide. When the figure or illustration is very small and it is required that the whole class should see it clearly, a transparent slid of this small figure is prepared. The slide is placed inverted into the slide carrier part of the magic lantern (slide projector). The slide projector projects its erect image on the well or screen by enlarging its dimension and making the vision more sharp and clear. If he slide or film strip is colored then it would be more attractive. The slide projector is useful for small as well as large groups.

Film Strips (7)

It is an improvement upon slide projector (magic lantern). The device may be used as a slide projector or as a film strip projector. Instead of using different slide for different topics or more slides for one topic, one strip or piece of still film is prepared. Slides produced on films are called film strips. A film strip consists of a strip of cellulose acetate film 16mm or 35mm wide and length 2 to 5 feet. It usually consists of 40 to 100 separate pictures related to a particular subject, topic or theme. These pictures may be connected with series of drawings, photographs, diagrams or combination of these. Such strip or a piece of still film serves the same purpose as served by a number of slides.

There is not much difference between a slide projector and a film strip projector. In a slide projector we use separate slide while in a film strip, a strip of film (having ling strip of many slides) is exhibited. The film strip projector is a recent development and it is growing to be a more popular means of pictorial representation.

Overhead Projector (O.H.P.) (8)

The Overhead projector has opened a new dimension in communication. It represents a lot of improvement over magic lantern, slide and film projectors.

The name ‘Overhead projector’ comes from the fact that the projected image is behind and over the head of the speaker/teacher. In overhead projection, a transparent visual is placed on a horizontal stage on top of light source. The light passes through this transparency and then is reflected at 90° angle on the screen at eh back of the speaker.

How to use OHP

Step 1 Remember to plug in the OHP. Step 2 Pull the head mirror up completely. It is likely to break down if you move the head mirror up strongly. Step 3 Turn on OHP. It is ready for use OHP.
After Use: Turn off power, and move the head mirror down. If out of focus, please adjust as follows. Turn the part of gray on head mirror to the right and left until focus is correct.

White board (9)

A whiteboard has a smooth shiny white surface, which can be written: on with special pens and wiped clean with a dry cloth.

How to use a white board

You will need

• special thick whiteboard pens which have washable ink

• a sponge or cloth to clean the board Providing you have the special pens you can use many different surfaces, for example, plastic sheeting, sticky-back plastic and so on. Do not allow young children to play with the plastic bags - they could put them over their heads and suffocate. Whiteboards can be used in the same way as chalkboards for writing or drawing. In the beginning it may be difficultto keep the writing horizontal, and the same size and style, so you will need to practise.

Before writing on the whiteboard in your lesson or session, draw the summary in the lesson plan. It needs to be clear and well-arranged. Bar charts, line graphs, pie charts and diagrams can be drawn on the whiteboard before a maths or geography lesson.

Flipchart (10)

A flipchart is a series of sheets of paper, fastened together at the top. When a sheet has

been used, it can be ‘flipped’ over the top so that the next sheet can be used.

How to use a flipchart

A flipchart can be used in two ways:

• with blank sheets of paper or newsprint, which the teacher or trainer writes on during the session

• as a pre-prepared resource with pictures and or notes.

To avoid having to write while speaking, you can prepare texts and drawings before the lesson or session.

Each sheet of a flipchart should illustrate one point or message in a lecture, talk or training session. You should turn to the next sheet when moving on to the next point. This helps students and learners to understand and remember information. It also acts as an aid to you, reminding you of the structure of your lesson or presentation Development workers find picture flipcharts particularly useful for illustrating important points.

Explanatory or additional notes can be written on the back of the previous page to remind you of what you need to say or to provide information in case you are asked detailed questions. This is particularly helpful if a flipchart is to be massproduced and used by teachers and trainers who have not been involved in its design If you are working with several small groups, you can give each group a blank sheet and a pen. After their discussions, the group can write their conclusions on the sheet. The conclusions of all the groups can then be displayed for everyone to see. Suggestions and ideas from students or trainees can be written blank sheets of a flipchart to enable them to see their ideas, for example in a planning workshop for teachers. The sheets can be taken away and used for future reference to draw up detailed plans or as notes for a written report.

Work sheet (11)

A worksheet lists questions or activities for students or trainees to work through. Pre-prepared worksheets can be used successfully with groups with differing abilities or language skills because each person can work at their own pace.

How to use worksheets

Worksheets can be used for homework or a revision programme, or they can include further details to be studied for the next lesson. They can be photocopied, or copies can be made using a jelly copier or banda machine. In development work, worksheets can reinforce or remind trainees about a particular message or technique. Worksheets provide flexibility in the classroom as well as in the workshop, because they can be used individually, in pairs, or in small groups to facilitate teamwork skills.

Newsletter (12)

A newsletter is an informal printed report, which is distributed to members of a particular group in order to share information. A newsletter can be useful to promote good public relations, offering evidence that the school, college or other organization is working hard to achieve its targets. To keep a record of newsletters you have made, punch holes in them and store them in a special file. Printing costs can be funded through selling advertising space or asking local businesses to sponsor a page. Careful budget control is

necessary. Like pamphlets, newsletters are easier to produce if you know how to use and have access to a computer and a desktop publishing (DTP) programme.

Cartoon (13)

A cartoon is a simple picture of an amusing situation; sometimes it is a satirical comment on a serious or topical issue. A strip cartoon is a sequence of framed drawings, which tell a story. Both types are to be found in newspapers, magazines and leaflets. In development situations a cartoon is a method of conveying a specific message.

How to use cartoons

Cartoon pictures can enable people to discuss sensitive issues and so are useful for teaching and training. Listening skills in the language class can be extended and developed using cartoon strips. You can read out a description of something, which needs to be drawn in sequence, each part in a separate frame. Ask the students to listen carefully, while you read the piece two or three times. Then ask them to draw what they have heard. You could provide a template with a number of ready drawn frames for them to fill in. You could do this with two separate groups and ask the students to discuss what they see in the picture. You can then evaluate how well they have understood the piece you read. Cartoon strips can be used to teach sequencing and ordering to students. Find, or draw, a cartoon strip with between three and eight separate frames. Cut out each frame and rearrange them so that they are in the wrong order. Stick them down in the new order and make one copy for each group. Ask them to cut each frame out and put them in the correct order. Before you do this, show the students an example on the chalkboard of pictures in the wrong order and ask them to put them in the correct sequence.

The above exercise can also be used in a workshop or training session, using a topic related to the subject of the workshop or session. As it encourages discussion and team decision-making, it can be introduced as an ice-breaker. The less obvious the order, the more interactive the process will be as each group may suggest different answers. This

creates an opportunity for each group to explain their answers and defend their position.

posted by dev's stories at 22.23


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